Just a reminder, these posts are not legal advice. This site is the personal blog of Mark Radcliffe and the opinions expressed are those of Mark Radcliffe and not those of his clients, DLA Piper or the clients of DLA Piper.

About Me:

Mark Radcliffe

I have been practicing law in Silicon Valley for over thirty years assisting startups and global companies develop and market innovative products and services. I have participated in multiple business cyles in Silicon Valley from hardware to software to internet to cloud. My projects have included developing the dual licensing business model for open source startup, developing the original domain dispute resolution policy for NSI and assisting Sun in open sourcing the Solaris operating system. Recently, I served on the US Japan Innovation and Entrepreneurship Council (one of ten members) to develop a plan to encourage the innovation in Japan and the United States. I have been working with the same attorneys since 1986 although we have merged with other law firms several times. I am now a partner at DLA Piper, a (relatively) new global law firm formed in 2005 from the merger of three law firms. The firm now has 4200 lawyers in 31 countries and 77 cities. My experience in corporate securities (particularly venture capital) and intellectual property enables me to assist companies structure the financing and intellectual property strategy for developing ane exploiting a new product or service. I and my team work with fifty startups at one time as well as Global Fortune 100. I have been fortunate enough to work with companies in software, cloud computing, semiconductor, health care IT and Web 2.0.

Talend, a licensor of open source enterprise software, has recently received a ruling from the U.S. Customs Service corroborating that its software complies with the Trade Agreements Act 0f 1979 (19 USC 2511 et seq.) (“TAA”). Open source software adoption by the US Federal government must comply with many regulations, some of which can be difficult given the nature of modern software development. And these rules are frequently used as a barrier, or a bar, to the use of FOSS in federal government procurement. One of these issues is the ability of the FOSS company to certify compliance with the TAA which requires a product to be manufactured or “substantially transformed” in the United States or a “designated country”. A “designated country” is one of a handful of countries with which the U.S. has a trade agreement on government procurement or a similar arrangement. However FOSS frequently contains routines or other components whose origin is not sufficiently certain to “certify” compliance with these requirements, or if certain, the origin is a non-designated country such as India or China (as a matter of transparency, my partner, Fern Lavallee, represented Talend in the approval process).
Like many companies, Talend has a substantial part of the source code of some of its products written in the People’s Republic of China. However, virtually all other aspects and steps in the “manufacture” of its software – and particularly the complex activities fundamental to manufacturing the software - are performed in the United States or the “designated countries” of France or Germany. The letter goes into significant detail about the process of designing, developing and testing the Talend software. Talend successfully argued that the steps performed in the US, France and Germany constituted the “substantial transformation” of the source code into the “product”, i.e., the machine-readable object code software product, in a designated country for federal government procurement purposes sufficient to certify TAA compliance. The U.S. Customs Service agreed in its advisory letter.
This decision is timely because U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is currently revising the “DoD Open Systems Architecture, Contract Guidebook for Program Managers” which was issued in draft in December, 2011. This Contract Guide is specifically intended to be used by DoD Program Managers who are incorporating Open System Architecture principles into National Security Systems. The new version is currently expected to be released by the end of this calendar year. A copy of the decision can be obained from Talend at

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